Technology And Its Effects On Work And Organizations

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    21 April 2018. Cupertino, California, USA. Aerial drone of Apple Campus spaceship at sunset in Sunnyvale / Cupertino, Silicon, Valley.

    Over time Technology and its documentations has been kept down its the History books. The era of civilization can be divided into three parts, technology having its own role. These three parts include;

    1. Agricultural Era
    2. Industrial Era
    3. Digital Era.

    Image result for silicon valley

    As Regards to the topic of discussion, the area of focus is the Digital Era, people are focusing on the generation and trading of products and services via digitized data, information, and knowledge. This era is based on an infrastructure comprising information and communication technologies. This new infrastructure is not just helping people do things better and faster than in previous eras, but it is enabling new ways of control, coordination,and collaboration on activities more readily, at lower costs, governed by the law of diminishing costs. That is, because of the properties of digital goods, the cost per unit of marginal or additional output incrementally decreases, whereas the amount of all other factors of production stays constant.

    Moving forwards, as technology becomes more accessible and made available irrespective of geographical limitations, resources are now made more available. This is because at the beginning of the Digital Era, it began with computers and communication technology.

    The first stage, enterprise computing, was based on mainframe computers. In this stage, the focus was on improving the efficiency of the physical world by analyzing its characteristics in the electronic space and then modifying the physical space. The administrative model followed was that of a regulated monopoly by centralizing all the computing resources within data-processing centers. Many users shared a single mainframe computer. It was infeasible at that time to supply expensive computing equipment to the multitude of potential users.

    The second stage, end-user computing, was based on personal computers. The focus in this stage was on supporting productivity improvements of individuals, particularly business professionals. The administrative model followed was that of a free market enabled by each individual having her/his own personal computer/desktop computer. The notion of “one computer per person inside a company” became possible.

    The third stage, strategic computing, was based on communication technology. The Internet became a global network of networks as heterogeneous computers and communication interfaces were connected with each other, thereby linking local area networks into a single, large communication network (Hauben & Hauben 1995). Companies combined the Internet and enterprise applications systems (such as enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management, supply chain management, material requirement planning, human resource management, and enterprise-form automation systems) to support business processes and inter-organizational activities. The administrative mode adopted was a regulated free market structure like client-server
    architecture.

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